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Vance Randolph (1892 – 1980)



Vance Randolph was a folklorist and professional writer who lived most of his life in the Ozarks region of Missouri and Arkansas. Beginning in the 1920s, Randolph wrote numerous books and articles about Ozark life and culture. He traveled throughout the Missouri and Arkansas Ozarks and observed all aspects of folk culture. Randolph personally recorded and collected ballads, songs, and stories that had been handed down orally from one generation to another in the isolated Ozark region. His published accounts of Ozark culture are of great value to folklorists.


Early Years

Pittsburg, Kansas, 1909 Pittsburg, Kansas This is how Pittsburg, Kansas, looked in 1909, when Vance Randolph was 17 years old.

[Courtesy of the Library of Congress]

Vance Randolph was born in Pittsburg, Kansas, on February 23, 1892. He was the oldest of three sons The 1900 Federal Census shows Vance with his family in Pittsburg, Kansas, at the age of eight. His father is listed as being an attorney and Vance is at school.

[1900 U.S. Census, Pittsburg, Kansas]
born to John and Theresa Gould Randolph. Vance’s father was an attorney and his mother worked as a schoolteacher and librarian. John Randolph encouraged Vance’s fascination with the outdoors. The two took long walks in the woods to study bugs and wildlife. Vance’s father even taught him the names of the constellations in the sky at night. Sadly, John Randolph died just before Vance’s tenth birthday.



As a boy, Vance recalled that he was “painfully shy” and developed a stammer. Many of his teachers thought he was “stupid and ignorant” which made him want to avoid school. By the time he was ready to go to high school, Vance said that “the idea of high school terrified me.” He eventually dropped out of high school and worked in a local pool hall.

Pittsburg State Manual Training Normal School Pittsburg State Manual Training Normal School This building is currently known as Russ Hall. It was named for Russell S. Russ, the founder and first administrator of Pittsburg State University. When Vance Randolph attended the institution, it was known as the Kansas State Manual Training Normal School.

[Leonard H. Axe Library, Special Collections, Pittsburg State University]

Vance soon discovered that he missed learning. His mother offered to help him if he would go back to school. In 1911 he enrolled at Pittsburg State Manual Training Normal School (now Pittsburg State University) in Pittsburg, Kansas. He did well in college and graduated with a degree in biology. Vance later obtained a master’s degree in psychology at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. He worked on a Ph.D. in psychology at the University of Kansas but did not finish his studies.


Discovering the Ozarks

Hanging Rock Drive along Elk River Hanging Rock Drive along Elk River Vance Randolph fell in love with the Ozarks in 1899 when his parents took him on vacation to Noel, Missouri. This photograph shows Hanging Rock Drive, one of the few roads leading into Noel, circa 1920. It was a view that Randolph was certainly familiar with.


Although Randolph studied biology and psychology, he spent his life collecting, recording, and writing about Ozark life and folklore. As a young man, Randolph read old collections of ballads and songs. He also read the work of George Borrow, an adventurous English soldier and author who studied languages and the folkways of Gypsies. This sparked his life-long work with folklore and music.

Randolph began writing for Appeal to Reason, a Socialist newspaper published by Julius Augustus Wayland in Girard, Kansas. His newspaper career came to an end in 1917 when he was drafted by the U.S. Army during World War I
Also known as the First World War, World War I was a global war that was centered in Europe. The conflict began on July 28, 1914, and lasted until November 11, 1918. It was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, on June 28, 1914. Alliances between countries were tested and war soon erupted. The two opposing alliances were the Allies and the Central Powers. The Allies consisted of the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire. The Central Powers were Germany and Austria-Hungary. Other countries were later drawn into the conflict, including the United States, which supported the Allies and entered the war on April 6, 1917. More than sixteen million died during the war and twenty million others were wounded. The National World War I Museum is located in Liberty Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri.
. Constantly ill, he never served overseas and was granted a disability discharge in 1918.
Northwest Arkansas Northwest Arkansas This road north of Bentonville, Arkansas, shows the Ozarks scenery Randolph loved.

[Merritt F. Miller Collection, 1906-1927 (C3921), The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]

After wandering for a few years, Vance Randolph settled down in Pineville, Missouri. He had first visited nearby Noel, Missouri, in 1899 as a boy while on vacation with his parents. It was then at the age of seven that he came to believe “the Ozark country was the garden spot of all creation.” It was the beginning of Randolph’s life-long love affair with the Ozarks of southwest Missouri and northwest Arkansas.

Map of Pineville, Missouri Pineville, Missouri

After buying a house in Pineville in 1919, he began to collect songs and ballads from local residents. He quickly expanded his efforts to include tall tales, folk stories, jokes, superstitions, riddles, and old folkways. While in Pineville Randolph met Marie Wardlaw St. John Wilbur whom he later married in 1930.

Missouri Ozarks Missouri Ozarks The dirt road and rail fence was a typical sight in the Ozarks when Randolph lived there.

[Merritt F. Miller Collection, 1906-1927 (C3921), The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]

In 1931 Randolph’s first book The Ozarks: An American Survival of a Primitive Society was published. It was followed the next year by Ozark Mountain Folks. These books, as well as the numerous magazine and journal articles that Randolph wrote about the region, helped establish his reputation as an expert on the Ozarks.


Becoming an Ozark Expert

Bird's-eye view of Galena, Missouri Bird's-eye view of Galena, Missouri After he returned from California, Vance Randolph lived in Galena, Missouri, where he continued his work.


By 1933 Randolph was recognized as one of the leading authorities on the Ozarks region, and was subsequently hired as a scriptwriter by MGM Studios in Hollywood, California. He and another writer wrote a script about the Ozarks. When the producer read the script, he told Randolph and his writing partner that the script “lacked authenticity.” Angry, Randolph left Hollywood and returned to the Ozarks. Instead of returning to Pineville, he settled in Galena, Missouri, in Stone County. Marie Randolph died from cancer in 1937. The couple did not have any children.

Randolph in the Ozarks Randolph in the Ozarks Vance Randolph driving a wagon through the Ozarks.

Hired during the height of the Great Depression
In late October 1929 a devastating stock market crash occurred on Wall Street. The crash was the result of risky financial decisions made by investors in the stock market. The value of stocks fell dramatically, sending the economy into a tailspin. Many people went broke and faced tough times. The crash was followed by the Great Depression, a severe worldwide economic downturn that lasted until World War II. Many people were unemployed during this time, income dropped, and many families became homeless.
to work as an assistant state supervisor of the Federal Writer’s Project in Missouri, Randolph travelled throughout the Ozarks recording folk songs and collecting stories and folklore with pen and paper. Randolph established lasting relationships with area residents that enabled him to collect large amounts of material.
Fiddler Joshua C. Keithly Fiddler Joshua C. Keithly Vance Randolph collected a stanza of Sourwood Mountain from Joshua C. Keithley of Ridgedale, Missouri, in 1940. This song appears in Volume III of Ozark Folksongs and is an example of a humorous song. Keithley’s stanza went like this:

“Old man, old man, I want your daughter, Hi ho diddle dum, hi ho day,

To make my bread an’ pack my water, Hi ho diddle dum a day.

Young man, young, man, you can have her, Hi ho diddle dum, hi ho day,

But she won’t work, an’ I caint make her, Hi ho diddle dum a day.”

[Vance Randolph, Ozark Folksongs Collection, 1919-1957 (C3774),The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]

These relationships were important when he was later hired to collect songs and ballads in the Ozarks for the Archive of American Folk Song at the Library of Congress. This time, however, Randolph was able to purchase recording equipment to make sound recordings of old-time Ozarkers singing hymns and mournful ballads.

Randolph used the material he gathered to produce his most important and impressive work. In 1946 the State Historical Society of Missouri published Ozark Folk Songs. A four volume set, Ozark Folk Songs contains over 900 ballads and songs that Randolph gathered, including African American spirituals; ballads brought to the United States by British, Irish, and Scottish immigrants; religious hymns; Civil War
The Civil War was a military conflict that began on April 12, 1861, when Southern forces fired on Fort Sumter outside of Charleston, South Carolina. Several Southern states had seceded from the United States (also known as the Union) and formed the Confederate States of America (also referred to as the Confederacy) out of fear that the United States' newly elected president, Abraham Lincoln, would not allow the expansion of slavery into new western states. Battles and skirmishes were fought throughout the country by Union and Confederate forces. General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, Virginia, on April 9, 1865. As other Confederate forces heard the news of Lee's surrender, they surrendered as well and the war was soon over. Over half a million men were killed or wounded in the war. Thousands of former slaves gained their freedom. After the war, the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution were passed prohibiting slavery, providing equal protection for all citizens, and barring federal and state governments from denying citizens the right to vote due to their race, color, or status as a former slave.
tunes; and humorous songs.
Mr. Sam McDaniels Mr. Sam McDaniels Sam McDaniels was from Pineville, Missouri, and Randolph likely knew him well. He contributed a stanza to the song “Soldier, Soldier, Marry Me,” in Ozarks Folksongs.

[Vance Randolph, Ozark Folksongs Collection, 1919-1957 (C3774),The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]

Vance Randolph admitted his work focused on people he called “hillbillies and ridge-runners” who lived in isolated areas, not individuals who lived in cities or towns, or people he thought were tainted by modernization. He presented a narrow, romanticized view of the Ozarks as he focused on the upper White River Valley of Missouri and Arkansas, and not the entire Ozark region.


Final Years

Drawing of Vance Randolph Drawing of Vance Randolph This undated drawing of Vance Randolph was done by Missouri artist Rose O’Neill.


During the 1940s, Randolph became close friends with the noted illustrator Rose O’Neill. He was impressed with and entertained by O’Neill’s many natural talents. Randolph helped O’Neill write her autobiography, which was finally published in 1997.

It was during this time period that Randolph moved to northwest Arkansas where he spent the rest of his life. In the late 1950s, he was given an honorary doctorate by the University of Arkansas. A few years later in 1962, he married a second time to Mary Celestia Parler, a fellow folklorist and English professor at the University of Arkansas. They did not have any children. He continued to remain active in folklore circles until his health began to decline. In 1978 Randolph was elected a Fellow of the American Folklore Society, an impressive honor for a self-trained folklorist.

Ozarks Playground Association Ozarks Playground Association Booster groups like the Ozarks Playground Association of Joplin, Missouri, attracted thousands of visitors to the Missouri and Arkansas Ozarks. The writings of Vance Randolph and other writers helped their cause.


Vance Randolph died from old age at the age of 88 on November 1, 1980, in Fayetteville, Arkansas. He is buried in the Fayetteville National Cemetery.


Randolph's Legacy

Document featuring sheet music Play-Party Song "Skip To My Lou" is a popular song and continues to be sung by children today.

[Vance Randolph, Ozark Folksongs Collection, 1919-1957 (C3774),The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]

Although he did not have a Ph.D., Vance Randolph published over sixty articles and books on Ozark folk culture. Among his more famous works are: Down in the Holler: A Gallery of Ozark Folk Speech; Ozark Folksongs, Ozark Magic and Folklore; Ozark Superstitions; The Ozarks: An American Survival of a Primitive Society; and Who Blowed Up the Church House? And Other Ozark Folk Tales.

His books focused on the everyday lives of people who lived in the Ozarks, preserved the songs, ballads, and folklore of a passing generation, and shaped the way that many people today view the Ozarks.

Text and research by Kimberly Harper


References and Resources

For more information about Vance Randolph's life and career, see the following resources:

Society Resources

The following is a selected list of books, articles, and manuscripts about Vance Randolph in the research centers of The State Historical Society of Missouri. The Society’s call numbers follow the citations in brackets. All links will open in a new tab.

  • Articles from the Missouri Historical Review
  • Articles from the Newspaper Collection
    • “Vance Randolph in Defense of Ozark and Hillbillies.” Kansas City Star. March 28, 1934.
    • “Vance Randolph, New Interpreter of Life in the Ozarks, and Some of the Lovable Characters About Whom He Writes.” Kansas City Star. May 21, 1933. p. 2C.
  • Books
    • Christensen, Lawrence O., William E. Foley, Gary R. Kremer, and Kenneth H. Winn, eds. Dictionary of Missouri Biography. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999. pp. 636-637. [REF F508 D561]
    • Cochran, Robert. “People of His Own Kind: Vance Randolph’s Kansas Years.” The Little Balkans Review. v. 1, no. 2 (Winter 1980-1981). [REF 978.19 L721 v.1]
    • _____. Vance Randolph: An Ozark Life. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987. [REF F508.1 R159c]
    • Cochran, Robert, and Michael Luster. For Love and for Money: The Writings of Vance Randolph, an Annotated Bibliography. Batesville, AR: College Folklore Archive Publications, 1979. [REF F586 R159]
    • Halpert, Herbert. “Obituary: Vance Randolph.” Journal of American Folklore. v. 94 (July-September 1981): 345-350. [REF Vertical File]
    • Randolph, Vance. Down in the Holler: A Gallery of Ozark Folk Speech. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1953. [REF F586.5 R159do]
    • _____. Ozark Folksongs. Columbia: State Historical Society of Missouri, 1946-50. [REF F586 R159of v. 1-4]
    • _____. Ozark Magic and Folklore. New York: Dover Publications, 1964. [REF F586.5 R159do]
    • _____. The Ozarks: An American Survival of Primitive Society. New York: Vanguard Press, 1931. [REF F586 R159oz]
    • _____. The Talking Turtle and other Ozark Folk Tales. New York: Columbia University Press, 1957. [REF F585.2 R159t]
  • Manuscript Collection

Outside Resources

These links, which open in another window, will take you outside the Society's website. The Society is not responsible for the content of the following websites:

Historic Missourians: Vance Randolph
Vance Randolph Vance Randolph (1892 - 1980)

[SHS 015018]

Vance Randolph

Born: February 23, 1892
Died: November 1, 1980 (age 88)
Category: Writers
Region of Missouri: Southwest
Missouri Hometown: Pineville
Related Biographies: Rose O'Neill
Vance Randolph Signature