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François Vallé (1716 - 1783)



Map of Missouri with Ste. Genevieve starred Ste. Genevieve

François Vallé was a French militia captain who became one of the most important citizens in Upper Louisiana, an area that included much of what later became Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri. Despite being illiterate, Vallé was a successful businessman, and he became one of the most influential figures in colonial Ste. Genevieve.


Early Life and Education

Map of Kaskaskia    Map of Kaskaskia Map of Kaskaskia.

The neighboring communities of Kaskaskia, Illinois, and Ste. Genevieve, Missouri, directly across the Mississippi River, can be seen in this composite map created by the US Land Office in 1940.

[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Map Collection (751.237 Un3)]

François Vallé was born on January 2, 1716, in Beauport, a town in French Canada in what is now Quebec. He was the fifth of twelve children born to Charles Valleé and Geneviève Marcou La Valleé. Due to limited economic opportunity, he moved in 1739 to the town of Kaskaskia in Upper Louisiana territory, in what is now southwestern Illinois.

Early lead mining Early lead mining Early lead mining.

A mural by Oscar Berninghaus at the Missouri State Capitol depicts early lead mining in Washington County, Missouri. The mural was painted in a lunette, a half-moon-shaped space. The artist depicts the use of slaves by mine owners.

[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Photograph Collection (023796-1)]

Vallé was uneducated and illiterate, which was common among people living on the frontier. His first job was herding cattle on a long trip from Kaskaskia to what is now eastern Arkansas. In the early 1740s, Vallé employed others to help him in a seasonal lead mining operation at Mine La Motte in what is now Madison County, Missouri. Lots of money could be made from lead mining because lead was used to make bullets for hunting and self-defense. It was risky, however, because the mine was located deep in the wilderness and remained under constant threat of Indian attack.

In 1744, Vallé formed a business partnership with his best friend, Joseph Liberville dit Joson. Two years later he embarked on a dangerous yearlong trading expedition into modern-day Indiana, through territory containing Indian tribes that were hostile to France.


Starting a Family and Settling in Ste. Genevieve

Lead Mining    Old Sainte Genevieve Old Sainte Genevieve.

Artist Oscar Berninghaus painted this lunette for the Missouri State Capitol built in 1917. It depicts early Ste. Genevieve before flooding in 1785 forced residents to relocate the town farther inland.

[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Photograph Collection (017298-1)]

After Vallé safely returned from Indiana in 1747, he left his partnership with Liberville and bought his first house. On January 7, 1748, just after his thirty-second birthday, François Vallé married Marianne Billeron, the daughter of Léonard Billeron, a local notary. Since Marianne could read, she had an active role in her husband’s business affairs for the rest of her life. She also helped teach their children, who all became literate. Together the couple had six children: four boys and two girls. Vallé had another daughter, Marguerite, from an extramarital relationship. No details are known about her birth mother, but Marguerite was raised in the Vallé household along with the rest of the Vallé children.

By the time he married Marie, François was one of the most successful businessmen in Kaskaskia. Since cash was hard to come by on the frontier and there were no banks in the region, business deals were often conducted using credit. Vallé stayed out of debt and saved a sizable amount of cash, which he then loaned out to others for a profit.

Jean Baptiste Vallé house Jean Baptiste Vallé house Jean Baptiste Vallé house.

The home at 99 South Main in Ste. Genevieve belonged to Jean Baptiste Vallé, the son of François Vallé, and was built in the French vertical log style around 1794.

[Courtesy of the Library of Congress]

François started buying land in and around the settlement of Ste. Genevieve. This fertile land helped him amass a fortune. Sometime around 1754, Vallé sold his house in Kaskaskia and moved his family to Ste. Genevieve, where they remained for the rest of their lives.


The Richest Man in Upper Louisiana

Map of Ste. Genevieve    Map of Ste. Genevieve Map of Ste. Genevieve.

This map of Ste. Genevieve clearly shows the large amount of land owned by the Vallé family. It also depicts the common field system used by the French. Residents were assigned a strip of land outside of town to farm, but their homes were located in town.

[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Map Collection (751.237 L928)]

Two years after it was founded in 1750, Ste. Genevieve had only twenty-four residents. When Vallé arrived in 1754, he was probably one of the richest and most successful people in this small community. After a little over a decade, he was probably the wealthiest man in all of the Upper Louisiana territory.

Although Vallé continued to invest in mining operations, he had stopped mining himself by the late 1750s. He used the profits from his early mining and trading ventures to buy vast amounts of land that was farmed by slaves. In 1766 he owned sixty-three slaves, making him the largest slaveholder in Upper Louisiana. Like many slaveholders in the area, Vallé owned both Indian and African slaves, but he relied mostly on African slaves to work on his estate. By 1781 he owned eighty-four slaves, which was one-third of the slave population and over one-tenth of the total population of Ste. Genevieve.

Ste. Genevieve farm Ste. Genevieve farm Ste. Genevieve farm.

A rural scene outside of Ste. Genevieve shows what the landscape was probably like when the early French settlers were farming there.

[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Photograph Collection (P018_364)]

Most of Vallé’s fortune was probably made by selling the crops grown on his farm. During the 1770s, Vallé was the biggest producer of flour and wheat in the entire colony of Louisiana. He sold wheat and corn to New Orleans and other French settlements downriver, where the climate was unsuitable for growing these crops. He purchased valuable European goods like silver, furniture, and expensive cloth. Vallé’s collection of bedsheets alone was worth more than most houses in Ste. Genevieve. Aside from his large collection of personal possessions, Vallé owned several buildings and numerous cattle, horses, and hogs.


French Captain, Spanish Lieutenant, and Leading Citizen of Ste. Genevieve

Louisiana Territory, 1765    Louisiana Territory, 1765 Louisiana Territory, 1765.

This map shows the vast area west of the Mississippi River that was once occupied by several different countries. France owned this territory from 1699 to 1762, when it ceded the land to Spain. France took back the territory in 1800.

[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Map Collection (848.K648 1765 c2]

After 1760, Vallé served the French government as captain of the local militia, the second-highest military position in the area. He kept his position after the Spanish government took over the area between 1766 and 1767. He was eventually made a special lieutenant in the Spanish army and awarded the honorable title of “Don Francisco.” This helped make Vallé the most powerful person in Ste. Genevieve until his death.

As militia captain, Vallé performed several important duties. The most important was defending the region from attack by Native Americans and foreign armies. The nearby mines were especially vulnerable to attack. Vallé’s son, Joseph, and six other colonists were killed in 1774 during a Chickasaw Indian attack on Mine La Motte. In 1780, Vallé sent the Ste. Genevieve militia to help defend St. Louis against an attack from British soldiers and their Indian allies during the American Revolutionary War (Spain was allied with the United States). He also helped make peace with Indian tribes living near Ste. Genevieve.

François Vallé Document François Vallé Document François Vallé Document.

This document from 1779 records the donation of a piece of property in Ste. Genevieve by François and Marianne Billeron Vallé to Étienne Guevremont, in return for his maintenance of the fence that surrounds the property. Vallé’s secretary, François Leclerc, wrote the document and signed the first half of Vallé’s name. The illiterate Vallé scribbled in the ink-blotted last name himself, with difficulty. As captain of the militia and special lieutenant, Vallé’s signature makes this document an official record.

[Missouri, Ste. Genevieve, Archives, 1756-1930 (C3636), The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]

François also served as a civil judge and law enforcement official. He was in charge of many legal matters, such as the investigation of crimes and divorce requests, overseeing marriage contracts, conducting civil trials, gathering citizens to vote on community matters, notarizing legal documents (with the help of a literate secretary), and administering the census. He was in charge of taking the inventory of estates when people died and before their possessions were divided for inheritance or sale at auction. Vallé’s knowledge of estate lists, and his position as overseer of all auctions, gave his family an advantage to get the best items at the best price.


Death and Legacy

Panoramic view of Ste. Genevieve, 1832    Panoramic view of Ste. Genevieve, 1832 Panoramic view of Ste. Genevieve, 1832.

Lewis Pruneau, master model maker, was commissioned to create a diorama of Ste. Genevieve as it would have appeared in 1832. Much of the growth of the town can be attributed to the business and agricultural ventures of the Vallé family.

[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Photograph Collection(P370-1)]

François Vallé’s health began to decline in the late 1770s, and he was relieved of his military duties in 1780. On October 22, 1781, Marianne Vallé died during a severe yellow fever epidemic that killed many citizens in Ste. Genevieve. According to French custom, half of François and Marianne’s estate was divided between their children at that time. As Vallé’s health continued to decline, his son Jean-Baptiste and his wife Marie-Jeanne moved in to help care for him. François Vallé died at home in Ste. Genevieve on the morning of September 28, 1783, having found the success that many settlers hoped for, but few achieved, when they moved to Upper Louisiana.

Text and research by Todd Barnett


References and Resources

For more information about François Vallé's life and career, see the following resources:

Society Resources

The following is a selected list of books, articles, and manuscripts about François Vallé in the research centers of The State Historical Society of Missouri. The Society’s call numbers follow the citations in brackets. All links will open in a new tab.

  • Articles from the Missouri Historical Review
  • Books & Articles
    • Christensen, Lawrence O., William E. Foley, Gary R. Kremer, and Kenneth H. Winn, eds. Dictionary of Missouri Biography. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999. pp. 761–762. [REF F508 D561]
    • Crist, Helen Valle. They Was Frenchmans: The Valleé Family Legacy. Brea, CA: Creative Continuum, 2003. [REF F508.2 V242cr]
    • Dalton, Mary. “Notes on the Genealogy of the Vallé Family.” Missouri Historical Society Collections. v. 2, no. 7 (1906), pp. 54–82. [REF In Case F550 M69]
    • Duclos, Zachary M. The Way We Were, Volume 2: Our French Canadian/Acadian Ancestors. Cadet, MO: Old Mines Area Historical Society, 2001. pp. 396–410. [REF F516.2 D858]
    • Ekberg, Carl J. Colonial Ste. Genevieve: An Adventure on the Mississippi Frontier. Gerald, MO: Patrice Press, 1985. [REF H237.47 Ek16]
    • ____. Francois Vallé and His World: Upper Louisiana before Lewis and Clark. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2002. [REF F508.2 V2422ek]
    • ____. French Roots in the Illinois Country: The Mississippi Frontier in Colonial Times. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998. [REF F516.2 Ek24]
    • Finiels, Nicolas de. An Account of Upper Louisiana. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1989. [REF F516 F495]
    • Franzwa, Gregory M. The Story of Old Ste. Genevieve. 5th ed. St. Louis: Patrice Press, 1990. [REF H237.47 F589]
    • Morrow, Kristen Kalen. “Ste. Genevieve’s First Family: a Chronicle of the Vallé’s.” Gateway Heritage. v. 8, no. 2 (Fall 1987), pp. 24–33. [REF F550 M69gh]
    • Shoemaker, Floyd C. Missouri and Missourians: Land of Contrasts and People of Achievements, Volume 3. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1943. pp. 241–242. [REF F550 Sh73m]
    • Stepenoff, Bonnie. From French Community to Missouri Town: Ste. Genevieve in the Nineteenth Century. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2006. [REF H237.47 St43]
    • Stewart, John. “A Walking Tour in Old Ste. Genevieve.” Missouri Life. v. 6, no. 3 (July-August 1978), pp. 50–57. [REF F585 M6912]
    • Surrey, Nancy M. The Commerce of Louisiana during the French Régime, 16991763. New York: Columbia University Press, 1916. [REF F516.2 Su78]
  • Manuscript Collection
    • History of Mine La Motte, 1939 (R0025)
      This is a photocopy of a history of Mine La Motte in Madison County, Missouri. It was compiled by Gertrude Scott Hall, the daughter of William Hall, a director and mine manager for the Mine La Motte Company.
    • History of Mine La Motte, 1949 (R0026)
      This is a photocopy of a term paper prepared for a class at Southeast Missouri State University at Cape Girardeau, Missouri, by Ferris H. Van Sickle, a student at the university.
    • Mine La Motte, Abstract of Title (R0027)
      This is a photocopy of a twenty-seven-page typescript compilation of the abstract of title to the property at Mine La Motte in Madison County, Missouri. It has references to both François and Jean Baptiste Vallé.
    • Missouri, Ste. Genevieve, Archives, 1756-1930 (C3636)
      These are the French colonial and territorial records of the District of Ste. Genevieve, including county and court records. One-third of the documents are dated between 1756 and 1804, and most of these are written in French. Several documents refer to François Vallé or members of his family.
    • Sainte Genevieve, Photographs, 1880s-1920s (R0338)
      This collection contains several photographs of old houses in Ste. Genevieve, including the house of Jean-Baptiste Vallé (constructed in 1785).
    • Ste. Genevieve Chamber of Commerce, Booklet, 1935 (R0836)
      This is a souvenir pictorial booklet celebrating the bicentennial of the founding of Ste. Genevieve. It contains photographs of several of the city’s historic sites, including the Jean-Baptiste Vallé home.

Outside Resources

These links, which open in another window, will take you outside the Society's website. The Society is not responsible for the content of the following websites:
  • Ste. Genevieve, Missouri
    This website from the city of Ste. Genevieve’s Department of Tourism has a “History and Heritage” section, which contains links to historical information about Ste. Genevieve, including its French, German, Native American, and African American heritage.
  • Virtual Museum of New France
    This website contains information about New France, the greater colony of which Upper Louisiana was a part.

Historic Missourians: François Vallé

François Vallé

Born: January 2, 1716
Died: September 28, 1783 (age 67)
Categories: Explorers & Settlers
Region of Missouri: Southeast
Missouri Hometowns: Ste. Genevieve
Valle Signature