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Alexander W. Doniphan (1808 - 1887)



Map showing Liberty, Missouri Liberty, Missouri
Alexander W. Doniphan was a prominent lawyer, military leader, and political figure. He is remembered for his refusal to execute Joseph Smith and Smith’s followers during the 1838 Mormon War
The Mormon War was a brief conflict in the summer and fall of 1838 between Mormons and non-Mormons in Missouri. In the early 1830s, many non-Mormons in Jackson County, Missouri, grew worried that the Mormons settling there would soon outnumber them and gain control of the county's political offices by dominating elections. This led to tension between the two groups and, ultimately, the expulsion of Mormons from Jackson County.

Mormons were then allowed to settle in Caldwell County, but after they began to stream into Daviess and Carroll counties, many non-Mormons felt threatened and there was more tension between Mormons and non-Mormons. Violence soon broke out between them. The state militia was called out and Governor Lilburn W. Boggs issued Missouri Executive Order Number 44, which proclaimed, "The Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace..." After bloodshed on both sides, sixty Mormon men were to be put on trial, but after an initial inquiry, many were released. While the remaining Mormon men were being transferred on a change of venue to trials in Columbia, all but two of them escaped and left the state. The two remaining men were acquitted. Unwelcome in Missouri, Mormon refugees relocated to Illinois, bringing an end to the hostilities that had plagued the state.
and his exemplary military leadership during the Mexican War
The Mexican War lasted from 1846 to 1848 and was fought by the United States and Mexico. When the United States annexed Texas, which had been a part of Mexico but had won its independence, in 1846, Mexico felt its territory had been invaded and declared war against the United States. U.S. President James K. Polk, who had wanted to buy large amounts of land from Mexico but was refused, also called for war. The United States then proceeded to take all of the land that Mexico did not want to sell, making the boundary between the two countries the Rio Grande River. The land taken included what is today California, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and Colorado. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war and the United States paid Mexico $15 million for the land.
of 1846–1848. Although he was not a professional military commander, Doniphan successfully led his troops on one of the longest marches in military history, contributing to the United States’ victory over Mexico.

Early Years and Education

Born on July 9, 1808, in Mason County, Kentucky, Alexander was the youngest of ten children born to Joseph and Anne Smith Doniphan. After serving in the Continental Army during the American Revolution, Joseph became a prosperous farmer and served as county sheriff.

In 1813, after Joseph Doniphan’s unexpected death, Alexander was sent to live with his oldest brother, George, in Augusta, Kentucky. Doniphan graduated from Augusta College when he was eighteen and then read law with attorney Martin P. Marshall. He was admitted to the Kentucky bar, but decided to head west in search of greater opportunity. In 1830 he settled in Lexington, Missouri, where he quickly earned a reputation as an eloquent and skilled defense attorney.

Three years later, Doniphan moved to Liberty, Missouri, and became friends with influential local attorney and politician David Rice Atchison. He also joined the local militia company, the Liberty Blues, beginning what would become a lengthy military career.


Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

Joseph Smith    Joseph Smith Joseph Smith.

Joseph Smith was the founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Although he did not share their beliefs, Alexander Doniphan agreed to defend Smith’s followers in court on numerous occasions.

[Courtesy of the Library of Congress]

At the same time Doniphan was establishing himself as an attorney and politician, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), commonly known as Mormons, were settling in Jackson County, Missouri. Many non-Mormons worried that the Mormons would soon outnumber them and gain a lock on the county’s political offices. This led to tension between the two groups and, ultimately, the expulsion of Mormons from Jackson County. Members of the church hired Doniphan, David Rice Atchison, William T. Wood, and Amos Rees to represent them in court.

Although Doniphan did not share the same religious beliefs as the Mormons, he did believe that they were entitled to the same constitutional rights as other Americans. Doniphan and his fellow attorneys, however, were unsuccessful in their legal efforts on behalf of their Mormon clients.


Politician and Family Man

In 1836 Doniphan was elected to the Missouri House of Representatives as a member of the Whig Party
The Whigs were an American political party that existed from the mid-1830s to the mid-1850s. Because it was formed as a protest against the amount of power claimed by President Andrew Jackson, the Whig Party borrowed its name from a British political party protesting the amount of power claimed by the king of Britain. The Whigs were made up of several different groups in the North, South, and West, and were mostly united by their dislike of Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party. As such, they were often divided on many issues. Although they disagreed about the morality of slavery, most Whigs agreed that slavery should be limited, and several opposed allowing slavery in new territories or letting slave regions like Texas join the United States. Many Whigs were in favor of a stronger national government (though not a stronger presidency) and wanted to raise taxes on foreign goods being sold in America so that the money could be used to build national improvements like roads, canals, and railroad lines. The Whig Party fell apart in the 1850s over disagreements on several issues, such as opposition to immigration, and about whether or not slavery should be abolished. Many former Whigs went on to support the Republican Party.
. He was reelected in 1840 and 1854. A sought-after bachelor, Doniphan married Elizabeth Jane Thornton on December 21, 1837, in Liberty, Missouri. The couple had two children, John Thornton Doniphan and Alexander William Doniphan, Jr. Tragically, both sons died before the age of eighteen.

The 1838 Mormon War

Governor Boggs Letter    Governor Boggs Letter Governor Boggs Letter.

In October 1838 Governor Lilburn Boggs wrote to Col. Hawkins of the Missouri State Militia, requesting protection for the citizens of Daviess County after reports surfaced that Mormons in the area had destroyed homes and government buildings.

[Hawkins Family, Papers, 1835-1879 (C0332), The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]

After trouble erupted once more between Mormons and non-Mormons, Missouri Governor Lilburn Boggs called upon the Missouri State Militia to intervene. Doniphan, a brigadier general in the militia, helped negotiate the surrender of Mormon leader Joseph Smith, Jr. and several other members of the group. General Samuel Lucas convened a military court martial and found Smith and his followers guilty of treason. Lucas then ordered Doniphan to execute the men by firing squad.

As a firm believer in the rule of law, Doniphan held that the court martial was illegal because Joseph Smith and his men were civilians and that not all members of the court martial were members of the military. He refused to carry out General Lucas’s command. Doniphan wrote Lucas, “It is cold-blooded murder. I will not obey your order. My brigade shall march for Liberty tomorrow morning, at 8 o’clock; and if you execute these men, I will hold you responsible before an earthly tribunal, so help me God.”

Lucas then placed Joseph Smith and his followers on trial at Richmond, Missouri. Doniphan once again served as the Mormon’s legal counsel. While the men were being transferred on a change of venue to Columbia, all but two of them escaped and left the state. The two remaining men were acquitted.


The Mexican War

Missouri Volunteer Missouri Volunteer Missouri Volunteer.

This is an artist’s rendering of a member of the First Missouri Mounted Volunteers. Although provided with uniforms, the men’s clothing wore out on the march to Mexico. They were forced to improvise, patching their clothes with deer, goatskin, and any other material they could find during the march.

[The History of the Military Occupation of the Territory of New Mexico, 1846-1851. SHS REF F553.6 T928h]

In 1846 war broke out between the United States and Mexico. Doniphan answered the call for volunteers and enlisted as a private. He was elected colonel by the men of his regiment and placed in command of the First Missouri Mounted Volunteers, part of General Stephen Watts Kearny’s Army of the West.

In June 1846 Doniphan and his men embarked on a two-month march from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to Santa Fe, which was then part of Mexico, where Mexican authorities surrendered to American forces. While General Kearny pushed onward to California, Doniphan was ordered to subdue hostile Native Americans in the region, create a new government, and then march to Chihuahua, Mexico.

Battle of Sacramento    Battle of Sacramento Battle of Sacramento.

Although outnumbered, Doniphan and his men defeated Mexican forces at the Battle of Sacramento. The Americans had fewer than twenty casualties while the Mexicans suffered an estimated eight hundred killed and wounded. This Currier and Ives print depicts an artist’s fanciful interpretation of the battle as the uniforms the American troops are depicted wearing are not accurate.

[Courtesy of Library of Congress]

After completing their first two tasks, the Missourians engaged and defeated Mexican troops at the Battle of El Brazito and the Battle of the Sacramento River with few casualties. After a grueling march through rugged enemy terrain, Doniphan then joined forces with U.S. Army General Zachary Taylor at Buena Vista, Mexico. As the end of their enlistment period drew near, Doniphan and his battle-hardened troops marched to Port Isabel, boarded a steamer to New Orleans, and mustered out at St. Louis. The expedition remains one of the longest and most successful marches in military history.


Civil War

Civil War Commenced Civil War Commenced Civil War Commenced.

The California News, Moniteau County, Missouri, reported on April 20, 1861, that the Civil War had begun in Charleston, North Carolina, at Fort Sumter on April 12.

[California News, April 20, 1861, Page 1]
After returning home to Missouri, Doniphan continued to practice law, became a successful businessman, and helped establish William Jewell College in Liberty. He repeatedly turned down opportunities to run for Congress and the governorship, but as a prominent military and political figure in Missouri, he could not escape the coming of the Civil War
The Civil War was a military conflict that began on April 12, 1861, when Southern forces fired on Fort Sumter outside of Charleston, South Carolina. Several Southern states had seceded from the United States (also known as the Union) and formed the Confederate States of America (also referred to as the Confederacy) out of fear that the United States' newly elected president, Abraham Lincoln, would not allow the expansion of slavery into new western states. Battles and skirmishes were fought throughout the country by Union and Confederate forces. General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, Virginia, on April 9, 1865. As other Confederate forces heard the news of Lee's surrender, they surrendered as well and the war was soon over. Over half a million men were killed or wounded in the war. Thousands of former slaves gained their freedom. After the war, the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution were passed prohibiting slavery, providing equal protection for all citizens, and barring federal and state governments from denying citizens the right to vote due to their race, color, or status as a former slave.
Although a slave owner, Doniphan rejected Southern secession
Secession occurs when a region formally attempts to withdraw from the government that rules over it. During the Civil War, the slave states of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas seceded from the United States to form the Confederate States of America. These states were readmitted to the Union after the Civil War ended. Although many Missourians fought for the Confederacy and Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson actively tried to lead Missouri into secession, Missouri remained in the United States during the Civil War.
and favored the preservation of the Union
Union is the term used to identify the United States and its government during the Civil War.
. He served as a delegate to the failed Washington Peace Convention and was a participant at the 1861 Missouri Constitutional Convention, where he declared he was “a Union man. I go for the whole Union, the entire Union. I go for it North, South, East, and West. I do not intend to bring about a calamity that will destroy the Border Slave States and the whole Union.” Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson offered Doniphan a commission in the Missouri State Guard, but Doniphan turned it down. He spent the duration of the war as a civilian in St. Louis.

Postwar Years

Doniphan in Later Years    Doniphan in Later Years Doniphan in Later Years.

This image shows Doniphan as he appeared in his later years.

[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Photograph Collection (009114)]

After the end of the Civil War, Doniphan and his wife moved to Richmond, Missouri. After years of poor health, Jane Doniphan died in 1873. Alexander Doniphan continued to practice law and established the Ray County Savings Bank, serving as its president.


Death and Legacy

Alexander Doniphan died on August 8, 1887, in Richmond. He is buried in Fairview Cemetery in Liberty, Missouri. A life-sized statue of Alexander Doniphan sculpted by fellow Missourian Frederick C. Hibbard is located outside of the Ray County Courthouse in Richmond, Missouri. Doniphan is remembered for his devotion to the rule of law, his belief in fairness, and his influential military and political service.

Text and research by Kimberly Harper


References and Resources

For more information about Alexander W. Doniphan's life and career, see the following resources:

Society Resources

The following is a selected list of books, articles, and manuscripts about Alexander W. Doniphan in the research centers of The State Historical Society of Missouri. The Society’s call numbers follow the citations in brackets. All links will open in a new tab.

  • Articles from the Missouri Historical Review
  • Articles from the Newspaper Collection
    • “Alexander William Doniphan: Symbol of Pioneer Americanism.” Liberty Advance, May 26, 1947, p. 5.
    • “Colonel A. W. Doniphan Appointed Commissioner to Peace Convention at Washington.” Columbia Statesman, February 8, 1861, p. 2, c. 7; p. 3, c. 1.
    • “Colonel Doniphan Refused Appointment under the New Military Bill.” Columbia Missouri Statesman, June 7, 1861, p. 2, c. 1.
    • “Colonel Doniphan Seriously Injured in Stagecoach Accident at Georgetown.” Columbia Missouri Statesman, December 29, 1854, p. 2, c. 3-4.
  • Books & Articles
    • Christensen, Lawrence O., William E. Foley, Gary R. Kremer, and Kenneth H. Winn, eds. Dictionary of Missouri Biography. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999. pp. 246–47. [REF F508 D561]
    • Dawson III, Joseph G. Doniphan’s Epic March: The 1st Missouri Volunteers in the Mexican War. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999. [REF F553.6 D325]
    • Hamele, Ottamar. When Destiny Called: A Story of the Doniphan Expedition in the Mexican War. San Antonio, TX: Naylor Co., 1948. [REF F553.6 H177]
    • Launius, Roger D. Alexander William Doniphan: Portrait of a Missouri Moderate. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997. [REF F508.1 D717L]
    • Robinson, Jacob S. A Journal of the Santa Fe Expedition under Colonel Doniphan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1932. [REF F553.6 R563j IN CASE]
    • Williamson, Hugh P. “Colonel Alexander W. Doniphan: Soldier, Lawyer, and Statesman.” Journal of the Missouri Bar. v. 8, no. 10 (October 1952), p. 180. [REF F564 M691j v. 8]
  • Manuscript Collection
    • Doniphan, Alexander W. (1808–1887), Letter, 1861 (C1935)
      To "John," from Washington, D.C., Feb. 22, 1861. To his nephew discussing Lincoln, state of the union, and position of border states. Also negative photostat of letter.
    • Doniphan, Alexander W. (1808–1887), Letter, 1878 (C1927)
      To "Caroline," from Denver, CO, Aug. 3, 1878. To his sister concerning his health.
    • Doniphan, Alexander W. (1808–1887), Letter, n.d. (C1803)
      To J. T. F. Thompson, n.d. Gives information pertinent to the claim of Samuel Tilley.
    • Doniphan, Alexander W. (1808–1887), Letters, 1859 (C3520)
      Letters introducing Robert G. Gilmer to Sam Houston and Asbell Smith of Galveston, TX.
    • Doniphan, Alexander W. (1808–1887), Letters, 1861–1873 (C1926)
      Letters to John Doniphan from Liberty and Richmond, MO, concerning convention of 1861, politics, business, and legal and family affairs.
    • Doniphan, Alexander W. (1808–1887), Letters, 1875–1878 (C3433)
      Nine letters written by Doniphan to his cousin Miss H. Emma Doniphan of Washington, D.C. He writes about his family, his health, and his education, and makes observations on politics and politicians.
    • Doniphan, Alexander W. (1808–1887), Letters, 1880 (C2917)
      Two letters to Jennie Hockaday, Plattsburg, MO, describing the landscape and population of Denver and Manitou Springs, CO.
    • Richardson, William H., Diary, 1846–1847 (C0899)
      This is the diary of a volunteer who served under the command of Alexander Doniphan in the Mexican War. Richardson left Carrollton, Missouri, in August 1846 and reached Monterey, Mexico, in May 1847. By July he had returned to his home in Maryland.

Outside Resources

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Historic Missourians: Alexander W. Doniphan
Alexander W. Doniphan Alexander W. Doniphan.

Alexander W. Doniphan was a prominent lawyer, military leader, and political figure in Missouri. This portrait was painted by famed Missouri artist George Caleb Bingham.

[The State Historical Society of Missouri, Art Collection]

Alexander William Doniphan

Born: July 9, 1808
Died: August 8, 1887 (age 79)
Categories: Leaders & Activists; Military Leaders
Region of Missouri: Northwest
Missouri Hometowns: Independence, Liberty, Richmond
Doniphan Signature