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Joseph Pulitzer (1847 – 1911)



Joseph Pulitzer suffered from poor health and bad eyesight most of his life, but his natural curiosity and eagerness to learn helped him succeed as a laborer, legislator, and newspaperman. Pulitzer created a journalistic style that is still in use today. Mixing thought-provoking editorials and news with crime and public interest stories, Pulitzer made the St. Louis Post-Dispatch and the New York World profitable papers. He is well known for creating the Pulitzer Prize.


Early Years

Joseph Pulitzer (originally Politzer) was born April 10, 1847, in Mako, Hungary Map of modern Europe with Mako, Hungary starred.

[This image is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 Unported]
, to Philip Politzer and Louise Berger. He came from a large family, but only he and his brother Albert survived to adulthood. When his father retired from the grain merchant business in 1853, the family moved to Budapest. The children were educated in private schools or by tutors and learned to speak both French and German. Joseph’s father died when he was only eleven years old. After his mother married Max Blau, Joseph decided to head out on his own at the age of seventeen.


Pulitzer Comes to America

Pulitzer enlists Pulitzer enlists Joseph Pulitzer, newly arrived from Germany, enlisted in the Union Army in New York in 1864.

[Courtesy of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch]
Pulitzer tried to join the military but was rejected by the Austrian army, the French Foreign Legion, and the British army. He was finally recruited in Hamburg, Germany, to fight for the Union
Union is the term used to identify the United States and its government during the Civil War.
in the American Civil War
The Civil War was a military conflict that began on April 12, 1861, when Southern forces fired on Fort Sumter outside of Charleston, South Carolina. Several Southern states had seceded from the United States (also known as the Union) and formed the Confederate States of America (also referred to as the Confederacy) out of fear that the United States' newly elected president, Abraham Lincoln, would not allow the expansion of slavery into new western states. Battles and skirmishes were fought throughout the country by Union and Confederate forces. General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, Virginia, on April 9, 1865. As other Confederate forces heard the news of Lee's surrender, they surrendered as well and the war was soon over. Over half a million men were killed or wounded in the war. Thousands of former slaves gained their freedom. After the war, the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution were passed prohibiting slavery, providing equal protection for all citizens, and barring federal and state governments from denying citizens the right to vote due to their race, color, or status as a former slave.
in August 1864. Pulitzer could not speak English when he arrived in Boston Harbor. He made his way to New York City, and enlisted with a mostly German cavalry unit. Pulitzer loved to ride horses even after he lost his sight. His brief military career ended on June 5, 1865, with an honorable discharge.


A Rough Beginning

Joseph Pulitzer shovelling coal on a ferry boat A difficult journey Penniless, Joseph Pulitzer arrived on the Illinois side of the Mississippi River and shoveled coal on a ferryboat in order to gain passage to St. Louis. The first bridge across the Mississippi to St. Louis, the Eads Bridge, was not built until 1874.

[Courtesy of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch (SHS 029239-4)]
Pulitzer returned to New York City after the war to find work. Competition from other Civil War veterans for jobs left Pulitzer often unemployed and sometimes homeless. He left New York and took a train to St. Louis, Missouri. Arriving in East St. Louis October 10, 1865, Pulitzer was penniless and had no way to cross the Mississippi River
The Mississippi River runs south from northern Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico and is considered the chief river in North America's largest drainage system. Bordering Missouri on the east, the river flows for 2,530 miles. Along with the Missouri River and several other tributaries such as the Ohio River, the Mississippi became part of the nation's first major transportation system in the early 1800s after the invention of the steamboat. Missouri has historically engaged in international trade by shipping and receiving goods along the Mississippi through the port of New Orleans, which lies at the river's mouth.
. He agreed to shovel coal on the ferry to gain passage across the river.
Tony Faust’s restaurant Tony Faust’s restaurant Tony Faust’s Oyster House and Saloon was considered to be one of the finest eating establishments in the country and was frequented by the rich of St. Louis. Pulitzer was fired after spilling food on a customer.

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Pulitzer worked many jobs while in St. Louis. He was a deckhand, a hack driver, a grave digger during the cholera
Cholera is a sickness caused by a water-dwelling type of bacteria. Its symptoms include extreme nausea and diarrhea, often causing dehydration and death. Cholera spread from Asia to Europe in the early 1800s, then to America at the beginning of the 1830s. Since cholera lives in water that has been contaminated with feces, it thrived in highly populated areas around rivers and other bodies of water with poor sewer drainage systems. Cholera outbreaks affected several American cities in the Mississippi River Valley during the mid-1800s. St. Louis was one of the cities hardest hit during this period, enduring cholera epidemics numerous times between 1832 and 1867. The 1849 and 1866 epidemics were especially severe, killing several thousand people. Cholera became less of a problem in American cities later in the 1800s as sewage systems improved and public health awareness increased.
epidemic in 1866, and briefly a waiter at Tony Faust’s restaurant. His worst job was caring for mules at the Jefferson Barracks. His big break came when he was hired to record land rights for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad and he got to travel by horse throughout Missouri. This job prompted him to study the law. He became a naturalized citizen Joseph Pulitzer became a naturalized citizen of the United States of America on March 6, 1867.

[St. Louis Circuit Court Records, Missouri State Archives]
on March 6, 1867, and was admitted to the bar in 1868.

Pulitzer’s Luck Turns Around

Westliche Post Westliche Post Joseph Pulitzer’s first newspaper job was with the Westliche Post, a German-language paper that operated in St. Louis from 1857 to 1938.

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Pulitzer continued to learn English while in St. Louis and spent many hours at the Mercantile Library. There he met Carl Schurz, coeditor and part owner of the German newspaper, the Westliche Post. Schurz admired the young Pulitzer and hired him as a reporter in 1868.

Pulitzer tirelessly sought the facts and got the story first, often irritating his peers in the process. While he covered the Republican state convention in Jefferson City in 1869, Pulitzer was nominated to run in a special election against Democrat Samuel Grantham as a representative for the Fifth District in St. Louis. Against the odds, the 22-year-old Pulitzer When Pulitzer was elected to the Missouri House of Representatives, he was technically too young to serve. The Missouri Constitution requires state representatives to be at least 24 years of age.

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won and took his seat January 5, 1870.

While a representative, Pulitzer tried to root out corruption in his district. He introduced a bill to abolish the St. Louis County Court, which hired county officials and awarded money for building projects. Pulitzer saw that contracts were being given to friends of the court. One such friend was Captain Edward Augustine, a building contractor and supervisor of registration for St. Louis County. On the evening of January 27, 1870, at the Schmidt Hotel in Jefferson City, Augustine became angry at Pulitzer’s accusations that he was corrupt, and called Pulitzer a liar.

Pulitzer left to get his gun, returning to the hotel to demand an apology, which Augustine refused to give him. Instead, he threw a punch at Pulitzer, who shot him in the leg with his old army pistol. Pulitzer pleaded guilty and was fined a large sum. His friends helped pay the fine, and his bill to end the county court eventually passed. Pulitzer ran for the House seat again in 1870, but lost to Nicholas M. Bell. Shortly after his loss, Pulitzer switched parties and became a Democrat.


The St. Louis Post-Dispatch

Pulitzer loved politics, but his true passion was journalism. When offered part ownership and a position as managing editor of the Westliche Post in 1872, Pulitzer accepted. He sold his interest in the paper in 1876 and took time off to travel and visit home in Hungary. He returned to St. Louis and bought the St. Louis Dispatch in 1878 at a public auction for $2,500. John A. Dillon, owner of the Post, agreed to merge his paper with Pulitzer’s, and the St. Louis Post and Dispatch was born December 12, 1878. The name was soon shortened to the Post-Dispatch, and the paper grew from four to eight pages.

Pulitzer worked on every aspect of his paper and attacked the evils of St. Louis with as much energy as he had in the state legislature. He exposed tax evaders, gambling rings, insurance fraud, monopolies, bankers, and city corruption. He considered his paper a vehicle for the truth and made many enemies in the process. He also increased circulation by the thousands and made the paper a huge success.

During this time, Pulitzer began courting Kate Davis Kate Davis Pulitzer.

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. They married on June 19, 1878, at the Episcopal Church of the Epiphany in Washington, D.C. The Pulitzers
1880 United States Census showing the Pulitzer family in St. Louis 1880 United States Census showing the Pulitzer family in St. Louis.

[1880 United States Federal Census]
The Pulitzer home at 2920 Washington Avenue, St. Louis The Pulitzers lived in this home at 2920 Washington Avenue in St. Louis in the late 1870s and early 1880s. Their son Ralph was born here.

[Courtesy of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch]
had seven children together: Ralph, Lucille, Katherine, Joseph Jr., Edith, Constance, and Herbert.

Pulitzer Takes on the “World”

Image of Pulitzer's home in New York City New York City Home The Pulitzers built a Renaissance-style home at 7 East 73rd Street in New York.

[Courtesy of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch]

By the early 1880s, Pulitzer’s health declined further. He decided to take a vacation with his family, but before leaving, he bought the New York World from Jay Gould on May 10, 1883. The family moved to New York City, although Pulitzer continued to own the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. He left his partner, John Dillon, in charge. Pulitzer managed his new paper with the same intensity that he had in St. Louis. By the 1890s, he had become nearly blind, and his nerves were so fragile he had to soundproof his bedroom at home, as well as his yacht, the Liberty, the one place he could find peace and quiet.

Pulitzer went on to do great things in his new city. He became a congressman from New York in 1884. Finding it difficult to run the World and be in Washington, D.C., at the same time, he gave up his seat on April 10, 1886.

The New York World building The New York World building The World building, also known as the Pulitzer building, was located on Park Row in New York City and was the tallest building in New York after its completion in 1890. The building was torn down in 1955.

[Courtesy of the Library of Congress]

Pulitzer built a sixteen-story building for the World in 1890, the tallest building in New York City at the time. He continued to fight crime and criticize the rich with his paper. Some of his proudest moments include breaking up Standard Oil in 1911 and making campaign contributions public. He was very proud that his paper helped to elect Grover Cleveland as president in 1884 and his readers helped raise enough money to pay for the pedestal to erect the Statue of Liberty in New York City’s harbor.

The World was known for its investigative journalism. Pulitzer hired Nellie Bly Nellie Bly, circa 1890, was born Elizabeth Cochran in 1864 and worked as an investigative reporter for Joseph Pulitzer during the 1880s and 1890s. She was a pioneer for women in the field of journalism and earned a reputation for investigating social institutions and breaking the time record for traveling around the world. She died in 1922.

[Courtesy of the Library of Congress]
to report on wrongdoings in New York’s institutions. Her investigative reporting and publicity stunts were hugely popular with readers.


Yellow Journalism

Cartoon of 'the Yellow Kids': Hearst and Pulitzer The Big Type War of the Yellow Kids During his rivalry with Hearst, Pulitzer set aside his commitment to reporting the facts in order to sell more papers. This cartoon by artist Leon Barritt, published on June 29, 1898, shows Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, both dressed in the nightshirt of the “yellow kid” pushing on opposite sides of block letters that spell out WAR. The “yellow kid” was created by R. F. Outcault. He was the first comic character in America to become so popular he increased the sale of the newspapers in which he appeared. Hearst offered Outcault more money to work for his newspapers, and the cartoonist left the World.

[Courtesy of the Library of Congress]

The motto Pulitzer displayed in his newsroom was “Accuracy! Terseness! Accuracy!” He believed in reporting the facts and nothing but the facts in his papers; however, when William Randolph Hearst bought a competing paper, the New York Journal, in 1895, Pulitzer forgot his standards.

To sell more papers, both Pulitzer and Hearst began to write shocking stories, gory headlines, and use lots of photographs and cartoons
Political cartoons first arose in Great Britain in the 1730s and spread to America about ten years later when Benjamin Franklin drew and printed the first American political cartoons. Political and editorial cartoons are used to visually communicate an opinion about current events, government programs, or politicians, frequently using comedy or sarcasm to get the point across. Often, cartoons are used as a memorable way to attack or make fun of a political opponent. Cartoons have also been used to draw public attention to corrupt people or practices in local, state, and national government.
to attract readers—a journalism style now known as “yellow journalism
During the intense rivalry between Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal from 1895 until the early 1900s, both newspapers emphasized sensational tactics to attract readers over commitment to reporting the facts in their competition for larger audiences. The tactics included shocking and sensationalized news stories, more use of pictures, and development of entertainment features that would be popular with readers such as comics sections. The term "yellow journalism" stemmed from a bidding war between the two papers for a popular comic strip, The Yellow Kid, which was created by R. F. Outcault and first included in a full-color supplement to the World in 1896. Hearst offered Outcault more money to work for the Journal, and the cartoonist left the World later that year, after which the Yellow Kid cartoon character was used by both papers. The Yellow Kid was the first comic character in America to become so popular he increased the sale of the newspapers in which he appeared. Pulitzer's and Hearst's use of yellow journalism was an important factor in shaping public opinion leading to America's involvement in the Spanish-American War.
.” The start of the Spanish-American War in 1898 intensified the rivalry. After several years of trying to outdo Hearst, Pulitzer finally realized his folly and again tried to report only the facts.

The End

Pulitzer with his secretary Pulitzer with his secretary Pulitzer’s eyesight continued to weaken. To stay informed, he hired secretaries who read to him.

[Courtesy of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch]

Blind and practically an invalid in his later years, Pulitzer required the help of several people to get through the day. He could not get out a lot because of his nervous condition, but his curiosity and desire to learn never stopped, and he continued to control and influence the editorial page of his newspapers. His secretaries read to him every day and were required to provide him with lively conversation. Pulitzer died Joseph Pulitzer obituary, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, October 30, 1911, p. 1.

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of heart failure aboard his yacht on October 29, 1911, at the age of 64. He is buried at Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx.


Joseph Pulitzer’s Legacy

John Singer Sargent portrait of Joseph Pulitzer, 1909 Joseph Pulitzer, 1909 American John Singer Sargent painted this portrait of Joseph Pulitzer in 1909.

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Pulitzer’s sons became owners and managers of both the New York World and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch after his death. While the World folded in 1931, the Post-Dispatch continues to be published, although it is no longer run by a member of the Pulitzer family.

Pulitzer spent his life fighting corrupt government, social evils, and most of all, the extremely wealthy. He never backed down from the truth On April 10, 1907, Pulitzer gave a speech on his retirement from the Post-Dispatch. His speech outlined his guiding principles for the newspaper and for many years was published on the front page of every issue.

[Daniel R. Fitzpatrick Papers, 1913-1966 (C3832), The State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection-Columbia]
despite both physical and legal threats from those he exposed. Although rich himself, he paid his employees well and was a generous man.

Pulitzer’s gift of two million dollars in 1903 helped create the Columbia University School of Journalism, which opened September 30, 1912. Today, the school oversees the Pulitzer Prize, an award given to those who excel in journalism, literature, and music. The prize began with a donation from Pulitzer and was first awarded in 1917.

Text and research by Laura R. Jolley


References and Resources

For more information about Joseph Pulitzer's life and career, see the following resources:

Society Resources

The following is a selected list of books, articles, and manuscripts about Joseph Pulitzer in the research centers of The State Historical Society of Missouri. The Society’s call numbers follow the citations in brackets. All links will open in a new tab.

  • Articles from the Missouri Historical Review
  • Articles from the Newspaper Collection
    • Joseph Pulitzer Dead.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch. October 30, 1911. p 1.
    • “Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of Joseph Pulitzer, Founder of the Post-Dispatch, April 10, 1847 – Oct. 29, 1911.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch. April 6, 1947.
  • Books
    • American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press. 1999–2002. vol. 12, pp. 927-930. [REF 920 AM37]
    • Barrett, James Wyman. Joseph Pulitzer and his World. New York: Vanguard Press, 1941. [F508.1 P966b]
    • Christensen, Lawrence O., William E. Foley, Gary R. Kremer, and Kenneth H. Winn, eds. Dictionary of Missouri Biography. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999. pp. 630-631. [REF F508 D561]
    • Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1928–1995. vol. VIII, pp. 260-263. [REF 920 D561]
    • Ireland, Alleyne. Joseph Pulitzer: Reminiscences of a Secretary. New York: Mitchell Kennerly, 1914. [F508.1 P966i]
    • Seitz, Don Carlos. Joseph Pulitzer, His Life & Letters. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1924. [F508.1 P966s]
    • Swanberg, W. A. Pulitzer. New York: Scribner, 1967. [F508.1 P966sw]
  • Manuscript Collection
    • Pulitzer, Joseph, Jr. (1885-1955) Papers, 1897-1958 (SL0060)
      This collection contains 163 reels of microfilm and consists of the correspondence, subject, and business files of Joseph Pulitzer’s son, manager of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. The original papers can be found at the Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.

Outside Resources

These links, which open in another window, will take you outside the Society's website. The Society is not responsible for the content of the following websites:
  • Encyclopedia of World Biographies
    This Website contains biographies of famous people from around the world, including a short biography on Pulitzer.
  • Joseph Pulitzer Papers at Columbia University
    The Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Columbia University holds Pulitzer’s personal papers. This Website contains the collection’s online finding aid. The papers include the correspondence and business records of Joseph Pulitzer, his family, and the operation of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch.
  • On This Day
    Pulitzer’s obituary which was printed in The New York Times can be found here.
  • The Pulitzer Prizes
    This Website contains information on the Pulitzer Prize, as well as a biography on Pulitzer written by Seymour Topping, former administrator of the Pulitzer Prize.

Historic Missourians: Joseph Pulitzer
Joseph Pulitzer at the age of thirty-four Joseph Pulitzer at the age of thirty-four.

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Joseph Pulitzer

Born: April 10, 1847
Died: October 29, 1911 (age 64)
Category: Journalists
Region of Missouri: St. Louis
Missouri Hometown: St. Louis
Joseph Pulitzer's Signature